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Response Deprivation

An alternative: response deprivation theory :

Premack principle may be violated if a situation or schedule of reinforcement provides much more of the high-probability behavior than of the low-probability behavior. Such observations led the team of Timberlake and Allison (1974) to propose the response deprivation hypothesis.[5]

Like Premack principle, this hypothesis bases reinforcement of one behavior on access to another. Experimenters observe the extent to which an individual is deprived of or prevented from performing, the behavior that is later made contingent on the second behavior. Reinforcement occurs only when the situation is set up so that access to the contingent response has been reduced relative to its baseline level. In effect, the subject must subsequently increase responding to make up for the “deprivation” of the contingent response. Several subsequent experiments have supported this alternative to the Premack principle.[5]

Learned Helplessness

‘An apathetic condition in an animal or a human being resulting from exposure to insoluble problems or inescapable physical or emotional stress, believed by some psychologists to underlie depression.’

The term was introduced in 1967 by the US psychologists J(ames) Bruce Overmier (born 1938) and Martin E. P. Seligman (born 1942) in an article in the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. Early experiments involved strapping experimental dogs into harnesses to prevent them escaping, and then exposing them to inescapable electric shocks. When the dogs were later placed in a situation in which they had to respond to a warning signal by jumping over a low barrier in order to avoid further shocks, most became apathetic and listless and failed to learn this simple avoidance response, whereas a control group of dogs that had not been exposed to the inescapable shocks learned the avoidance response quickly and easily. Learned helplessness has been demonstrated in humans as well as animals, and Seligman and his followers believe that it reduces the motivation to solve problems, interferes with the ability to learn from experience, and produces depression. It is very occasionally spelt learnt helplessness, which is arguably preferable inasmuch as it avoids the implication that the helplessness is knowledgeable and well read. [So called because it is acquired by learning (1)]

Frozen Watchfulness

‘Er kan elk moment iets vervelends gebeuren.’

‘The state of a child who is unresponsive to its surroundings but is clearly aware of them. The child is usually expressionless and difficult to engage but of normal intelligence. Frozen watchfulness is usually a marker of child abuse.’

Bij paarden zien we deze reactie als ze geleerd hebben dat elke kleine hulp van de trainer de voorspeller kan zijn van een sterke aversieve prikkel. Paarden leren de trainer nauwlettend in het oog te houden, omdat elke kleine verandering kan betekenen dat zij iets moeten doen om die aversieve prikkel te voorkomen.